Junkers Jet Engine Developements
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Junkers Jet Engine Developments

Junkers Jumo 006

Junkers RTO Jumo 006 (Multiple stage compressor with two turbine axial flow)

The development of jet engines by Junkers was initiated in 1936, when Prof. Wagner joint Junkers Flugzeugwerke. Wagner established a special jet engine development group under the management of Adolf Mueller at the Magdeburger Werkzeugmaschinenfabrik, which just had been taken over by Junkers Flugzeugwerke. In 1939 the first Junkers Jet engine was ready for static tests, but did not run. Following an official order of the RLM for a jet engine development in July 1939 the Magdeburg development was stopped and transferred to the Otto-Mader Entwicklungswerk at Dessau on request of the RLM. At the same time, Mueller left Junkers Flugzeugwerke and joint Heinkel. At Heinkel he continued the Magdeburg development under the designator 006

Jumo 004 Orkan

Junkers Jumo 004 Eight stage compressor, single stage turbine with axial flow

The development of the Jumo 004 was based on the Magdeburg experiments. This development was continued by Franz Anselm at the Otto-Mader-Werke since 1939. Anselm used several existing components to built the Jumo 004. The compressor was built from an 8 stage axial construction of the AVA Gottingen. The turbine blades were developed by AEG.
On the 11/10/1940 the first static test run of the engine was performed. A total of 80 experimental Jumo 004A engines were built. The first flight was performed on 15/3/1942 onboard a Me 110 and on 18/7/1942 the first Messerschmitt Me 262 was equipped with the new engine. The first preproduction series was the Jumo 004A-0. This engine was used for extensive flight tests, which were not satisfactory due to material overload and failure of the fan blades.

In summer 1941 the reconstruction of the Jumo 004A for serial production was started. The first serial production engines Jumo 004B-1 was ready in early 1942 and underwent intensive tests during 1943. The Jumo 004B differed with the compressor entry, an improved stator blade design for the compressor, modified turbine entry and separate compressor discs. Also hollow turbine blades were introduced, which caused again blade failures. In summer 1943 the serial production of these engines was started at Junkers Leipzig and at the Opelwerke at Russelsheim. A total of 7916 Jumo 004B were built by Junkers Flugzeugwerke plus an unknown number of engines at Opel. Several improved series were designed up to the end of the war.

    Jumo 004-C    Had increased thrust, auxiliary fuel injection and afterburner. This series was only projected, none was built.
    Jumo 004-D   With regulator for throttle movement and two stage fuel injection. Prototypes were built and tested, serial production began shortly before end of WWII.
    Jumo 004-E   The D-series engine with a shorter tail pipe and a double tube, as well as an afterburner. This engine was developed for getting a better altitude performance. At the end of the war several test engines were ready and serial production was planned for summer 1945.

After the war the Jumo 004 was used by the Czech Air Force, which used the engine in the Avia S-91and CS-91 produced by Avia. These Jumo 004 engines were produced at CKD at Prague.

The Soviet forces captured several engines and documentation at Dessau. The Jumo 004 was further developed and became the RD-10 which was fitted in the Jak-15, La-150 and Su-9.

In France the Jumo 004 and BMW 003 were studied and fitted into the Sud-Est S.O. 6000 "Triton" and the Arsenal VG-70.

Aircraft Types equipped with Jumo 004:

    Arado 234
    The initial prototype Ar 234 V-1 flew first in June 1943 with two Jumo 004A engines. All prototypes (except V6 and V8 which were fitted with four BMW 003-A) were equipped with Jumo 004B-1. A total of 210 aircraft of the initial production series Ar 234B were also fitted with the engine. The further improved C-series was equipped with four BMW 003A-1 and the V-16 was fitted with two BMW 003-R.
    Focke-Wulf Ta 183
    Only the V-1 was fitted with the Jumo 004.
    Gotha P.60B
    A development of the Horten flying wings the Gotha P.60 B was intended to be equipped with two Heinkel He S11 or two Jumo 004D.
    Heinkel He 280
    The Heinkel He 280 V-2 was equipped with two Jumo 004B-1.
    Horten Ho IX
    The Horten Ho IX was designed to be fitted with two BMW 003, but these engines were not available so it was fitted with two Jumo 004B-1. The V-2 prototype took to the air on a number of times in 1945 but crashed in February 1945 after turbine failure, killing the pilot. .
    Junkers Ju 287
    The first two experimental prototypes of the Ju 287 were equipped with four Jumo 004B-1. The 3rd prototype was which was under construction at the end of the war was fitted with six BMW 003.
    Messerschmitt Me 110-C
    A Messerschmitt Me 110 was used for the first in-flight tests of the Jumo 004A. At the end of 1941 the first flight with prop support was performed, while the first flight without prop support was performed on 15/3/1942.

    Messerschmitt Me 262
    The first Me 262V1 flew first on 18/4/1941 with a Jumo 210 piston engine. The V1 was later equipped with two BMW 003 engines. The V3 was the first Me 262 which got the Jumo 004A-0 engine. It flew first on 18/7/1942. It was followed by V4 to V6, also equipped with Jumo 004A-0, the Me 262-V7 to V12 were already equipped with the serial production engine Jumo 004B-0. This engine became the later serial production engine for the Me 262. The initial production fighter aircraft Me 262-A1 and the B1 got the Jumo 004B-1, while the bomber series Me 262-A2 and the night fighter Me 262-B1 were later equipped with Jumo 004B-3. The Mixed power Me262C-1 was also fitted with the Jumo 004B-3, but the C-2 was designed with BMW 003R .

    Messerchmitt P.1011
    As with the Fw Ta183, a Junkers Jumo 004 was intended to be fitted in the V-1 as the He S 011 engine was not ready.

Junkers Jumo 012

Junkers Jumo 012 (Eleven stage compressor with a double stage turbine)

The Jumo 012 was a special designed for the Junkers Ju 287. The engine was designed with a thrust of 6000 to 6400 lbs . Some parts were ready at the end of the war, however the prototype was not completed. When the Russians occupied Dessau, they decided to continue the Jumo 012 development A total of 15 engines were ordered for the end of 1946. The Jumo 012 prototype was ready for static tests at the end of June, but this was destroyed during tests in August . A second prototype was built in autumn 1946 and several changes were introduced. The new engine was designated Jumo 012B. In Summer 1948 the first five Jumo 012Bs were built, but as other jet engines offer more power at a more compact design, the Jumo 012 development was stopped in 1948.

Junkers Jumo 022

Developed at Junkers Motorenbau in 1944,this was the final Junkers engine project before the end of the war. Based on the Jumo 012 it was designed with a gearing for a contra rotating airscrews, one engine was made before the wars end but it was never tested. In 1947 how ever the Soviets asked the Junkers design team in the USSR to develop this engine. In 1950 the first 022 was ready for static tests and given the designation TV-2 or TV-12, by 1951 the engine was making 5,050 hp and by 1955 7,650 hp as the TV-2M. At around this time there was a twined TV-2, given the designation 2TV-2F this engine made 12,000 hp.

In 1954 the designation was changed to the NK-12 and later this was developed in to the NK-16 which made 18,100 hp. The engine has been fitted into many Soviet aircraft such as the TU-91, TU-95, TU-142 which are still flying to day and must make the Junkers Jumo 022 the world longest lived jet engine design at nearly 60 years.


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